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All In All

This campground was our fourth place in our trip around USA west coast, we stayed a couple days from 7 to 9 of september of 2012 and our cabin tent was 479, this cabin is a unheated cabin with shared bathrooms, we paid for that cabin tent 110 $ a day, but before starting my review YOU OUGHT TO KNOW THIS SUMMER (2012) YOSEMITE NATINAL PARK HAS ANNOUNCED 9 CASES OF HANTAVIRUS INFECTION IN PEOPLE who recently visited it. Curry Village is amazing and unforgetable place, because you are inside the Yosemite National Park, you don´t need anything because in your cabin you will have enough things like fresh towels (every day the towels will be changed), a chair, two beds (with sheets and blankets and pillows) and only one bulb, and outside of the cabin you have a locker and you must put in your food and beverage to avoid the black bear, obviously This tent isn´t luxury but it´s enough for having good times. This campground has a shared bathrooms and there are a lot of loos, sinks, showers (with shampoo and gel) and these restrooms are very clean but obviously it isn´t a private bathrooms. Curry village has a lot of place for eating like a restaurant, pizza restaurant, grocery where you can buy food and different beverages, and other place where you can charge your laptop or camera and where you can work with internet because…This campground was our fourth place in our trip around USA west coast, we stayed a couple days from 7 to 9 of september of 2012 and our cabin tent was 479, this cabin is a unheated cabin with shared bathrooms, we paid for that cabin tent 110 $ a day, but before starting my review YOU OUGHT TO KNOW THIS SUMMER (2012) YOSEMITE NATINAL PARK HAS ANNOUNCED 9 CASES OF HANTAVIRUS INFECTION IN PEOPLE who recently visited it.

Curry Village is amazing and unforgetable place, because you are inside the Yosemite National Park, you don´t need anything because in your cabin you will have enough things like fresh towels (every day the towels will be changed), a chair, two beds (with sheets and blankets and pillows) and only one bulb, and outside of the cabin you have a locker and you must put in your food and beverage to avoid the black bear, obviously This tent isn´t luxury but it´s enough for having good times.

This campground has a shared bathrooms and there are a lot of loos, sinks, showers (with shampoo and gel) and these restrooms are very clean but obviously it isn´t a private bathrooms.
Curry village has a lot of place for eating like a restaurant, pizza restaurant, grocery where you can buy food and different beverages, and other place where you can charge your laptop or camera and where you can work with internet because it´s free and when the night comes you can drink something while you watch your photos (and its amazing as well).

Finally my mark is three points because nobody told or gave any informations about the hantavirus until we got to Yosemite national park and one ranger told us that informations while we paid 20 or 25$ (I don´t remember very well) for coming to Yosemite national park.

All in all, I recomend it because this was the best place for us in our travel around USA west coast.
We will come back to Yosemite National park in the future.

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Based on available evidence, children do not appear to be at higher risk for COVID-19 than adults. While some children and infants have been sick with COVID-19, adults make up most of the known cases to date. You can learn more about who is most at risk for health problems if they have COVID-19 infection on Are you at higher risk for severe illness.
Steps to protect children from getting sick

Clean hands often using soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer
Avoid people who are sick (coughing and sneezing)
Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces daily in household common areas (e.g. tables, hard-backed chairs, doorknobs, light switches, remotes, handles, desks, toilets, sinks)
Launder items including washable plush toys as appropriate in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. If possible, launder items using the warmest appropriate water setting for the items and dry items completely. Dirty laundry from an ill person can be washed with other people’s items.

You can find additional information on preventing COVID-19 at Prevention for 2019 Novel Coronavirus and at Preventing COVID-19 Spread in Communities. Additional information on how COVID-19 is spread is available at How COVID-19 Spreads.
Children may present with mild symptoms

The symptoms of COVID-19 are similar in children and adults. However, children with confirmed COVID-19 have generally presented with mild symptoms. Reported symptoms in children include cold-like symptoms, such as fever, runny nose, and cough. Vomiting and diarrhea have also been reported. It’s not known yet whether some children may be at higher risk for severe illness, for example, children with underlying medical conditions and special healthcare needs. There is more to learn about how the disease impacts children.
Children don’t need to wear facemasks

No. If your child is healthy, there is no need for them to wear a facemask. Only people who have symptoms of illness or who are providing care to those who are ill should wear masks.
School Dismissals

Children and their friends

Limit Social Interactions: The key to slowing the spread of COVID-19 is to limit contact as much as possible. While school is out, children should not have playdates with children from other households. If children are playing outside their own homes, it is essential that they remain 6 feet from anyone who is not in their own household.
Practice Social Distancing: If you have small meetups, consider hanging out with another family or friend who is also taking extra measures to put distance between themselves and others (social distancing).
Clean Hands Often: Make sure children practice everyday preventive behaviors, such as washing their hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. This is especially important if you have been in a public place.
Revise Spring Break & Travel Plans: Revise spring break and travel plans if they included non-essential travel.
Remember, if children meet outside of school in bigger groups, it can put everyone at risk.
Information about COVID-19 in children is somewhat limited, but current data suggest children with COVID-19 may only have mild symptoms. However, they can still pass this virus onto others who may be at higher risk, including older adults and people who have serious underlying medical conditions.
Help children continue learning

Stay in touch with your child’s school.
– Many schools are offering lessons online (virtual learning). Review assignments from the school, and help your child establish a reasonable pace for completing the work. You may need to assist your child with turning on devices, reading instructions, and typing answers.
– Communicate challenges to your school. If you face technology or connectivity issues, or if your child is having a hard time completing assignments, let the school know.

Create a schedule and routine for learning at home, but remain flexible.
– Have consistent bedtimes and get up at the same time, Monday through Friday.
– Structure the day for learning, free time, healthy meals and snacks, and physical activity.
– Allow flexibility in the schedule-it’s okay to adapt based on your day.

Consider the needs and adjustment required for your child’s age group.
– The transition to being at home will be different for preschoolers, K-5, middle school students, and high school students. Talk to your child about expectations and how they are adjusting to being at home versus at school.
– Consider ways your child can stay connected with their friends without spending time in person.

Look for ways to make learning fun.
– Have hands-on activities, like puzzles, painting, drawing, and making things.
– Independent play can also be used in place of structured learning. Encourage children to build a fort from sheets or practice counting by stacking blocks.
– Practice handwriting and grammar by writing letters to family members. This is a great way to connect and limit face-to-face contact.
– Start a journal with your child to document this time and discuss the shared experience.
– Use audiobooks or see if your local library is hosting virtual or live-streamed reading events.

School meal services

Check with your school on plans to continue meal services during the school dismissal. Many schools are keeping school facilities open to allow families to pick up meals or are providing grab-and-go meals at a central location.
Keep children healthy

Watch your child for any signs of illness.
– If you see any sign of illness consistent with symptoms of COVID-19, particularly fever, cough, or shortness of breath, call your healthcare provider and keep your child at home and away from others as much as possible. Follow CDC’s guidance on “What to do if you are sick.”

Watch for signs of stress in your child.
– Some common changes to watch for include excessive worry or sadness, unhealthy eating or sleeping habits, and difficulty with attention and concentration. For more information, see the “For Parents” section on CDC’s website, Manage Anxiety and Stress.
– Take time to talk with your child or teen about the COVID-19 outbreak. Answer questions and share facts about COVID-19 in a way that your child or teen can understand.
– Go to CDC’s Helping Children Cope with Emergencies or Talking with Children About COVID-19 for more information.

Teach and reinforce everyday preventive actions.
– Parents and caretakers play an important role in teaching children to wash their hands. Explain that hand washing can keep them healthy and stop the virus from spreading to others.
– Be a good role model-if you wash your hands often, they’re more likely to do the same.
– Make handwashing a family activity.

Help your child stay active.
– Encourage your child to play outdoors-it’s great for physical and mental health. Take a walk with your child or go on a bike ride.
– Use indoor activity breaks (e.g., stretch breaks, dance breaks) throughout the day to help your child stay healthy and focused.

Help your child stay socially connected.
– Reach out to friends and family via phone or video chats.
– Write cards or letters to family members they may not be able to visit.
– Some schools and non-profits, such as the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learningexternal icon and The Yale Center for Emotional Intelligenceexternal icon, have resources for social and emotional learning. Check to see if your school has tips and guidelines to help support social and emotional needs of your child.

Limit time with older adults, relatives, and people with serious underlying medical conditions

Older adults and people who have serious underlying medical conditions are at highest risk of getting sick from COVID-19.
– If others in your home are at particularly high risk for severe illness from COVID-19, consider extra precautions to separate your child from those people.
– If you are unable to stay home with your child during school dismissals, carefully consider who might be best positioned to provide child care. If someone at higher risk for COVID-19 will be providing care (older adult, such as a grandparent or someone with a chronic medical condition), limit your children’s contact with other people.
– Consider postponing visits or trip to see older family members and grandparents. Connect virtually or by writing letters and sending via mail.

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Properly Removing Wild Animals Can Reduce Medical Risks

When a wild animal enters the home, it can cause significant property damage and put the family’s health at risk. Dangerous medical conditions linked to wild rodents are Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The medical conditions can cause serious health problems. Both illnesses are potentially fatal if they aren’t quickly treated.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurs by being exposed to the air contaminated with droppings, urine and saliva from an infected rodent. If the droppings come into direct contact with your skin, it can also lead to infection. Symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, stomach pains and a high body temperature. Liquid filling the lungs, as well as pain along the back, thighs and legs are additional signs that the disease may have been transmitted. Symptoms usually start within one to five weeks after you have been infected.

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is an illness caused by the Hantavirus. Transmission into the human body is airborne. People can also become sick if they are bitten by an infected rodent or if the body has direct contact with the urine, saliva or feces.

Hemorrhagic fever can be difficult to diagnose, especially in areas where the condition isn’t pervasive. Signs of infection include flu-like symptoms such as a fever, sore throat, fatigue, headaches and abdominal pain. Liver dysfunction and renal failure develop as the illness becomes more advanced. The symptoms will begin to show within one to eight weeks of getting infected.

If you start to feel sick, seek medical treatment. Inform the physician about the possible exposure to wild rodents. It will help the physician access the potential causes of your illness. A series of diagnostic tests can be ordered to confirm if you are suffering from Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, or another related illness. Treatment will include carefully monitoring your oxygen levels and blood pressure. The medical staff will also ensure you remain hydrated and maintain a proper electrolyte balance. Antibiotics and other medications may also be prescribed.

Contact a wildlife removal company as soon as possible if a wild animal is in your home. Avoiding contact with the wild animal and reducing exposure to the droppings, urine and saliva will decrease the probability of becoming infected with a life-threatening illness. A certified professional will utilize the appropriate techniques to get the animal off of the property and eliminate contamination. During the removal process, the family’s safety is a top priority.

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Hantavirus – Is It A New Global Pandemic?

The news about the death of a man in China due to hantavirus on March 24th sent shockwaves in the countries already reeling under the coronavirus crisis.

What is Hantavirus?
How the Hantavirus is transmitted?
What are the potential risk activities for Hantavirus infection?
What are the symptoms of hantavirus infection?
How fatal is the Hantavirus disease?
How is it diagnosed?
Is there any specific treatment available?
How to prevent Hantavirus infection and spread?
History of the Hantavirus disease
What is the reason for the early panic about Hantavirus?
Is there a need to panic?
Way forward
Practice Question for Mains


  • A man from the Yunnan province of China died in bus tested positive for the rodent-borne Hantavirus.
  • Authorities tested the other passengers. This prompted fear about another pandemic.
  • As the world is already reeling with COVID-19, there was panic around the world about another potential pandemic
  • It is also known as Orthohantavirus.
  • It is named after Hantan river of South Korea where it was observed.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (USA):

  • Hantavirus is a family of viruses that is spread mainly due to rodents and can cause varied disease syndromes in people infected.
  • It can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) found in North and South America and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) found mainly in Europe and Asia.
  • Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a respiratory disease in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses.
  • Any person who comes into contact with rodents carrying hantaviruses is prone to be infected by HPS.
  • HPRS transmission occurs if infected urine, droppings, saliva are directly introduced into broken skin, eyes, nose, or mouth.

How the Hantavirus is transmitted?

  • Hantavirus causes HPS when a person breathes in the hantavirus from the air.
  • The Hantavirus can become airborne and can spread if people come in contact with urine, feces, and saliva of rodents.
  • A very rare type of transmission is if rodent with the virus bites someone. The virus may spread to that person.
  • According to scientists, people can also become infected through food contaminated by urine, droppings, or saliva of an infected rodent.
  • Healthy individuals are at risk too if they are exposed to the virus.
  • The important fact to know is that this HPS is not known to spread Human to Human and HFRS transmission between people is extremely rare.

What are the potential risk activities for Hantavirus infection?

  • Opening and cleaning cabins, sheds, and outbuildings such as garages storage facilities are at potential risk for hantavirus infections, especially in rural areas.
  • Cleaning in and around your own home can cause hantavirus if rodents have made it their home too.
  • Construction workers, utility and pest control workers are exposed when they work in crawl spaces, undergrounds and in vacant buildings that may have rodents infected.
  • Campers and hikers can also be infected because of the use of infested trail shelters or camp in rodent habitats.

What are the symptoms of hantavirus infection?

  • The “incubation time” is not accurately known due to the small number of HPS cases.
  • Based on the limited information, it can be said that symptoms may develop within 1 to 8 weeks after the contact with fresh urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents.

Early symptoms

  1. Early universal symptoms are fatigue, fever and muscle aches in areas like thighs, hips, back, and shoulders.
  2. There are other symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems like nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain. Around half of all HPS patients experience these symptoms.
  1. These include coughing and shortness of breath.
  2. HFRS can also cause low blood pressure, acute shock, vascular leakage, and acute kidney failure

How fatal is the Hantavirus disease?

  • HPS has a mortality rate of around 40%, according to the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Around 200 cases of HPS occur every year in North and South America. The average case fatality rate is 40%.
  • World over, around 150,000-200,000 cases of haemorrhagic fever due to a hantavirus infection occur each year. Most of these occur in China with an average case fatality rate ranging from 1% to 12%.

How is it diagnosed?

  • Diagnosing HPS is difficult in the early days as early symptoms can easily be confused with influenza.
  • If the individual is ill with fever and fatigue and has potentially has had a rural rodent exposure, together with shortness of breath, this would be strongly indicative of HPS.

Is there any specific treatment available?

  • There is no recognized specific treatment, cure or vaccine for hantavirus infection.
  • However, if infected individuals are recognized early and given medical care in an intensive care unit, they may recover. Intubation and oxygen therapy in ICU can help them in a period of severe respiratory distress.
  • If a patient is experiencing full distress, it is highly unlikely that the treatment will be effective.

How to prevent Hantavirus infection and spread?

  • Eliminating or minimizing contact with rodents at home, workplace, or campsite.
  • Proper cleaning and disinfection of areas contaminated by rodent droppings.
  • Blocking of openings that might let rodents in.
  • Proper storage of food, water, and garbage in containers with tightly closed lids.
  • Decrease rodent population through various measures such as mousetraps throughout buildings
  • Stacking of woodpiles away from residential buildings.
  • If you are cleaning in a confined space, wear rubber or plastic gloves. Also, wear a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered respirator.

History of the Hantavirus disease

  • During the Korean war (1950-53), it infected nearly 3000 soldiers.
  • The second outbreak of the disease occurred in 1993 in the United States of America.
  • In between 1989 and 2014, 1713 hantavirus infections were notified in Germany.

What is the reason for the early panic about Hantavirus?

  • The world is already in firefighting mode because of Corona Virus. The WHO has declared it as a pandemic.
  • As of today, the statistics for COVID-19 according to are

1. Global infections- 425964
2. Global deaths- 18957

  • There are not enough testing facilities for COVID-19.
  • The symptoms of COVID-19 and Hantavirus are similar making it prone to hazardous confusions.
  • It is yet another disease for which no cure is available till now. The only cure is prevention and intensive care once infected.
  • More than half of the world is under lockdown due to Coronavirus. India declared a 21-day nationwide lockdown from 25th March midnight.
  • In this emergency condition, another Pandemic can cause unimaginable damage to the life and economy of the world.
  • The death toll per day in Italy is horrifying. If another pandemic grapples the world, the socio-economic impact it could make would be beyond the capacities of humanity.

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Is there a need to panic?

  • Experts say that there is no need to panic as of now as it is a known disease as compared to COVID-19 which was unknown before the outbreak in Wuhan in December 2019.
  • It is not contagious.
  • It cannot be transmitted Human to Human as is the case with COVID-19. It only spread through rodent urine, Saliva and droppings contact.
  • Although there is no vaccine, Doctors know the preliminary treatment procedures.
  • China identified the first case quickly as against COVID-19 which could not be identified before it spread widely.
  • Hence there is ample space for control and eliminate the threat.

Way forward

  • The first priority must be COVID-19 as it is already a Pandemic.
  • Meanwhile, China must act to contain the Hantavirus, as there are reports of recovery and no new case of COVID-19 in the past few days in China.
  • Other countries, including India, must focus their energy mainly to fight Corona while keeping an eye on Hantavirus.
  • There can be cooperation with China for outbreak mapping and current status.
  • As the USA and other European countries are familiar with the Hantavirus, there must be cooperation on tackling strategy on the lines of SAARC COVID-19 initiative.
  • Though there is little chance of Hantavirus becoming a global pandemic, as there is no cure to it and it can be a multiplier force along with COVID-19, we must be alert and prepared for the Hantavirus.

Practice Question for Mains

Explain Hantavirus disease. Discuss the potential of hantavirus to become pandemic. What can be done to prevent such a situation?

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Third Hantavirus Death Linked To Yosemite Outbreak

CHARLESTON, W.Va. — A West Virginian is the third person to die so far from a rodent-borne illness linked to some tent cabins at Yosemite National Park that has now stricken eight people in all, health officials said Thursday.

Gupta said the victim had visited the park since June but declined to be more specific, citing the family’s wish to grieve in private.

Seven of the cases involved guests at the insulated “Signature” cabins in the park’s historic Curry Village section. The California Department of Public Health said the other case involved someone who stayed in several High Sierra Camps in a different area of Yosemite in July.

“The time has lapsed in a way that it should not be a concern,” Gupta said.

Health officials say the disease isn’t spread from person to person. There is no cure for the virus, which can affect people of any age. The disease is carried in the feces, urine and saliva of deer mice and other rodents and carried on airborne particles and dust.

Yosemite’s hantavirus hotline has received thousands of calls about the outbreak.

“We want to make sure that visitors have clear information about this rare virus and understand the importance of early medical care,” Yosemite Superintendent Don Neubacher said Wednesday. “We continue to work closely with state and national public health officials, and we urge visitors who may have been exposed to hantavirus to seek medical attention at the first sign of symptoms.”

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Hantavirus: Hantavirus History

In recent years there has been an improved understanding of the epidemiology pathogenesis and natural history of these viruses following an increase in the number of outbreaks in the. The spillover of these viruses to humans can lead to one of two serious illnesses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

Natural History Of Hantavirus Infection With Relevant Serological

Upon comparison of the hantaviruses found in hosts of orders rodentia and soricomorpha it was proposed in 2011 that the hantavirus evolutionary history is a mix of both host switching and codivergence and that ancestral shrews or moles rather than rodents may have been the early original hosts of ancient hantaviruses.

Hantavirus history. States of utah colorado new mexico and arizona of the southwestern part of the country on mid 1993. In 1993 health officials noted the first recognized outbreak of hps in the four corners area of the us where the states of arizona new mexico colorado and utah meet. Two otherwise healthy young people a navajo indian and his fiancee suddenly became short of breath and died.

The patients tissues were tested for the presence of antibodies to hantavirus. What is the history of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. An investigation was begun.

The 1993 four corners hantavirus outbreak was an outbreak of hantavirus that caused the first known human cases of hantavirus disease in the united states. Hantavirus infections are diagnosed by the symptoms by a history of exposure to rodents and by laboratory identification of antibodies to the virus circulating in the blood. The results led to the discovery of another hantavirus named bayou virus which was linked to a carrier the rice rat oryzomys palustris.

Some cases have been treated with antiviral drugs such as ribavirin but in most cases the focus is on controlling body temperature fluids and electrolytes. In late 1993 a 33 year old florida man came down with hps symptoms. It occurred within the four corners region the geographic intersection of the us.

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So Why All The Hullaballoo On TV And Online?

Image courtesy CDC. Case counts as of Jan. 26, 2020

First off and foremost, if you live in the U.S., there’s no need to be alarmed. While there are estimated to be thousands of cases in China – mainly in Hubei province and its capital city, Wuhan, which is located in the eastern part of the country – there are few cases here in America.

The disease, which for now is being called the 2019 novel coronavirus, is in the same family as the common cold. Symptoms may include fever, cough and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, people have died, with at least 80 deaths reported in China.

Here in the U.S., doctors, hospital workers and other health professionals are on high alert for the disease. People who are sick in the U.S. can be isolated in hospitals to help prevent spread of the disease.

So why all the hullaballoo on TV and online? Part of the reason is that the 2019 novel coronavirus is a new disease that hasn’t been seen in humans before. So health officials want to find out more.

The new virus may also be similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome, a disease that killed 800 people around the world about 20 years ago. That worries health officials. But even during that outbreak, there were only eight cases of SARS in the U.S., and no deaths here.

More cases of 2019 novel coronavirus are expected to be reported in the U.S. in coming days and weeks. And it may be spread between people here at some point. In the past, health workers who are caring for sick people have been at high risk for such infections.

So you may be asking, “What does this mean for me?” Good question. In short, the risk to you and the rest of the U.S. general public is low. In fact, it’s much more likely that you’ll get the flu, which is estimated to have sickened 15 million and killed about 8,800 people since September in the U.S.

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How To Forestall Hantavirus And Coronavirus?

According to the most recent reports, a Chinese man passed on of hantavirus and now, individuals are interested to find out about the malady. In the midst of the pandemic of Coronavirus and its alarm, this instance of hantavirus starting from China again has prompted more pursuits about Hantavirus on Google as of now. For the unversed, the Chinese man who was from the Yunnan region was tried positive for Hantavirus and he kicked the bucket while on his way back to Shandong Province to take a shot at a sanctioned transport.

Hantavirus is a sickness that influences both the pneumonic locale, just as the kidneys. A human can get the infection when the individual in question interacts with the dung or pee of a rat who is conveying the infection. A place for Disease Control and Prevention says, “Rat invasion in and around the home remains the essential hazard for hantavirus presentation. Indeed, even sound people are in danger of HPS contamination whenever presented to the infection.

Coronvirus versus Hantavirus: Let’s burrow further to find out about both the ailments.

How Hantavirus and Coronavirus spread?

Unline Coronavirus, hantavirus aspiratory disorder (HPS) can’t be given from individual to individual. It very well may be contracted in the event that somebody contacts their eyes, nose or mouth subsequent to contacting rat droppings, pee, or settling materials. CDC says, “In Chile and Argentina, uncommon instances of person-to-person transmission have happened among close contacts of an individual who was sick with a kind of hantavirus called Andes infection.”

Then again, Coronavirus can be spread effectively among individuals and that is the reason isolate, shirking of huge get-togethers, lockdown and social separating are encouraged to follow to check the spread.

What are the manifestations of Hantavirus and Coronavirus?

The manifestations of Hantavirus are very like that of coronavirus. fever, cerebral pain, muscle throb, stomach torment, unsteadiness, chills, queasiness, regurgitating, looseness of the bowels are warnings. Late side effects incorporate lungs load up with liquid and brevity of breath.

How to forestall Hantavirus and Coronavirus?

CDC on counteraction of Hantavirus, “Dispose of or limit contact with rodents in your home, working environment, or campground. In the event that rodents don’t find that where you are is a decent spot for them to be, at that point you’re less inclined to come into contact with them. Seal up gaps and holes in your home or carport. Spot traps in and around your home to diminish rat pervasion. Tidy up any simple to-get nourishment.” One can forestall Coronavirus by cleaning hands regularly, keeping away from close contact, remaining at home in case you’re debilitated, one should cover hacks and sniffles, wear a facemask on the off chance that you are wiped out and clean and sterilize.

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Virus – Disease

Acute viral infections are of two types-local and systemic-both usually resulting from a direct effect of the invading virus on host tissue cells. Acute local infections generally occur at the site of viral infection. For example, acute respiratory infections include (1) the common cold, in which the rhinovirus infects only the nasal mucosa, (2) influenza, in which the virus is found in both nasal and bronchial mucosa, where severe damage can result in death, (3) flulike illnesses caused by adenoviruses localized in lymphoid tissue of the throat (although infection also can occur in the intestine and the eye or be spread to the heart), and (4) severe respiratory infections of infants and children, caused by parainfluenza viruses or respiratory syncytial viruses, which may be life-threatening. Examples of acute infections localized to the intestine include those that result in enteritis (bowel inflammation), which may be accompanied by diarrhea; these are often caused by rotaviruses and coronaviruses.

Many viruses transmitted by the respiratory route (from sneezes and coughs, for example) and limited to humans begin their cycle of infection in the upper respiratory tract (nose and throat) and then enter the bloodstream, where they are spread to distant tissues. Examples of such diseases are measles, mumps, and chickenpox, in which the growth of the specific virus in the mucosal cells of the throat during the first few days of infection usually results in mild fever and achiness; this stage is called the prodromal period of the illness. During the next few days, the virus enters the draining lymph nodes and then the bloodstream, where it is spread throughout the tissues of the body, resulting in fever and rash (in the case of measles and chickenpox) and inflammation of the parotid glands and, less frequently, the testes, ovaries, and joints (in the case of mumps). Varicella (chickenpox) virus rarely causes pneumonia, but all these viruses can cause meningitis and, rarely, encephalitis. A similar pattern of infection formerly occurred with smallpox, a disease that was more frequently fatal but now ostensibly has been eradicated.

A large number of viruses of the digestive tract (enteroviruses)-among them poliovirus, Coxsackie viruses, and echoviruses (enteric cytopathic human orphan virus)-also cause a two-phase illness. Enteroviruses grow initially in the intestinal tract and are transmitted by mouth through water, food, and other materials contaminated with feces. The viruses are resistant to the acid normally found in the stomach and thus reach the intestinal tract, where they multiply in living mucosal cells. This initial period of viral invasion and growth in the intestine causes either an initial mild febrile illness or is asymptomatic. Over the next few days these enteroviruses are spread from the intestinal mucosa to the draining lymph nodes, from which they invade the bloodstream, resulting in a condition known as viremia. From the bloodstream the viruses are widely spread to all tissues, but in most cases no symptomatic disease occurs. Poliovirus in less than 1 percent of cases affects the spinal cord or brain, resulting in paralysis or death. Different types of Coxsackie viruses and echoviruses can cause acute, usually nonfatal, illnesses such as meningitis, carditis, pleurisy, or rashes.

Many viral diseases are transmitted by bites of insects or other arthropods, and these infections usually begin in the skin or lymph nodes and rapidly invade the bloodstream. The nature of the disease caused by these arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) is determined by the affinity (tropism) of each virus for specific organs. Many that have an affinity for brain tissue cause encephalitis or meningitis, but others primarily infect the muscles, liver, heart, or kidneys. Virtually all these diseases are epidemic in character, and the viruses that cause them are the primary pathogens of birds and mammals. The insect, usually a certain species of mosquito, takes a blood meal from the infected host bird or mammal and shortly thereafter bites a human, thus transmitting the virus. These arboviruses do not ordinarily multiply in the insect but simply reside on its proboscis. Examples of human epidemic diseases resulting from transmission of these often fatal arboviruses are encephalitis caused by viruses of the family Togaviridae and Flaviviridae, yellow fever and dengue caused by viruses of the family Flaviviridae, and hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses of the families Bunyaviridae and Arenaviridae. Of considerable interest and concern is the identification of new strains of viruses, particularly a hantavirus of the Bunyaviridae family that was responsible for an epidemic in the early 1990s in the southwestern United States that resulted in considerable numbers of fatal human infections.

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Hantavirus Prevention Tips + 3 Natural Treatments – Dr. Axe

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rats and mice worldwide spread over 35 different diseases that can impact humans. (1) Rodents often transmit these infections and diseases to people when someone unknowingly comes into contact with rodent feces, urine or saliva, or more rarely, if they are bitten.

The single greatest risk factor for acquiring the rodent-transmitted virus called hantavirus is having rodent infestation in and around your home. You might not suspect that you’re at risk for hantavirus or other types of rodent-transmitted diseases. But studies have found that many people who wind up becoming infected weren’t aware of their contact with rodents or their droppings until it was too late.

In people who are mostly healthy, hantavirus typically does not cause any severe or long-lasting effects. But in people with compromised immune systems, this, unfortunately, isn’t always the case. Seeking treatment right away if you’re experiencing symptoms of hantavirus is crucial since hantavirus can cause complications when it remains untreated. Early signs and symptoms can include trouble breathing, muscle aches and symptoms associated with a fever. If the virus continues to worsen, it can progress into the life-threatening condition called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). (2)

Preventing hantavirus is critical, considering there is currently no specific treatment available that helps a high percentage of patients who have the virus. There is no known cure or vaccine. The CDC states that “Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection.” (3)

Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family. They are carried by rodents and shrews, especially in brown rats found throughout the world. There are a number of strains of hantaviruses that are transmitted from several species of rodents located in different parts of the world, especially cities located along the coasts in the United States, parts of Canada, Asia and Mexico.

Researchers refer to hantavirus strains as either “New World” hantaviruses or “Old World.” Old World hantaviruses are mostly transmitted from rodents living in Europe and Asia. New World hantaviruses are mostly found in rodents living in the Americas.

– Different types of hantavirus strains are associated with distinct diseases and symptoms. There have been at least seven types of pathogenic Old World hantaviruses identified that have caused illnesses in humans and one primary type of New World hantavirus.
– Hantaviruses include serotypes: Sin Nombre, Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), Puumala (PUU), and Dobrava (DOB) virus. (4)
– The type called Sin Nombre hantavirus was first recognized in 1993. It’s one of several New World hantaviruses that has caused infections in the United States.
– The type called Seoul virus is an Old World type that continues to cause infections across the world, including in urban areas. A 2014 report published in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene states that the Seoul virus was previously called the Tchoupitoulas virus. And it has been causing illnesses in the Southern U.S., especially near New Orleans, since at least the 1980s. (5) In 2014 when researchers captured 178 rodents to test them for the Seoul virus, around 3 percent of the animals tested positive.

How common are hantavirus infections?

Generally speaking, rodent-transmitted viruses are believed to be rare. But experts still say that “The degree to which Old World hantaviruses present a threat to public health in the United States remains murky and probably varies considerably by city and region.”

Signs & Symptoms of Hantavirus

Many people who acquire New World hantaviruses are able to recover completely without experiencing any long-term complications or symptoms of chronic infection. The amount of time it takes to recover depends on how healthy the person is, especially the strength of their immune system. Some people with compromised immune systems might take longer to recover or not be able to overcome the virus completely.

Symptoms of hantaviruses can include:

– Infection of the lungs, trouble breathing and respiratory distress.
– Fever, weakness, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting and chills.
– Symptoms that are attributed to hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS). HFRS is also sometimes called Korean hemorrhagic fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, and nephropathis epidemica. Symptoms of HFRS include intense headaches, back and abdominal pain, fever, blurred vision, flushing of the face, inflammation or redness of the eyes, or a rash.
– Some people with HFRS also experience low blood pressure, acute shock, vascular leakage, and acute kidney failure. Seoul virus infections typically result in a milder form of HFRS and don’t often cause hemorrhaging or very serious symptoms.

Complications Due to Hantavirus Infection:

When someone becomes severely affected by an Old World hantavirus, they can develop a very serious condition called Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). HPS is a respiratory infection that makes it hard to breathe and is sometimes fatal. It initially causes flu-like symptoms, then progresses within 4-10 days to cause “respiratory distress” and symptoms such as: (6)

– A strong cough that produces mucus/secretions
– Shortness of breath
– The lungs filling with fluid
– Cardiovascular problems including low blood pressure and reduced heart efficiency

It’s been found that up to 30-50 percent of people who develop HPS don’t survive. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is less serious. It causes death in about 1-15 percent of infected patients, depending on the specific strain of the virus.

Causes & Risk Factors of Hantavirus

People with hantavirus become infected after they come in contact with hantavirus-infected rodents, their infected urine and/or their droppings. The virus is passed through aerosolized urine or exposure to dust from the nests of infected rodents. Infected urine or other materials can make their way into broken skin or onto the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose or mouth. What types of rodents in the U.S. and elsewhere are capable of carrying the hantavirus? These include the following rodent species: (7)

– Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus) – These transmit the type of hantavirus called Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV). They are found in the Southeastern U.S. (from about West Virginia down to Florida, and westward expanding to Texas), Central and South America. The rats have longer fur than most other types that is coarse, grayish-brown, or grayish-black. Tends to live in overgrown areas with shrubs and tall grasses.
– Deer Mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) – Carries the hantavirus strain called Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Found throughout North America (from Mexico through most of the United States and also in Canada), especially in woodlands and deserts. Has big eyes and ears and gray to reddish-brown fur with a white underbelly and tail.
– Rice Rat (Oryzomys palustris) – Carries the hantavirus strain called Bayou virus (BAYV). Found in the southeastern U.S. and Central America (from about New Jersey south to Florida and westward to Texas), especially in wet, marshy areas. Has short, soft, grayish-brown fur on top, with white feet and a gray underbelly.
– White-Footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) – Carries the hantavirus strain called New York virus (NYV). Found throughout most of the U.S. (especially southern New England and the Mid-Atlantic and Southern states) and also in Mexico. Has a tail is that is shorter than the body, reddish-brown fur, and white feet.

Rodents that carry hantaviruses are found in almost all cities in the world, especially those that are crowded, polluted, have high populations and are close to the water (port cities) which increases the risk for rodent infestation. Experts believe that some of the cities in the U.S. with the most infected rodents include:

– New Orleans, Louisiana and other cities located at the Mississippi River outlet to the Gulf of Mexico.
– Baltimore, Maryland
– Houston, Texas
– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
– Cincinnati, Ohio
– Columbus, Ohio
– Los Angeles, California
– New York, New York
– San Francisco, California
– Seattle, Washington
– Tacoma, Washington
– Hilo, Hawaii
– Other less populated areas in the U.S. including in North Carolina, Maryland, West Virginia, Minnesota, California, Alaska and Mississippi (especially those along the coast).
– Globally, in parts of Scandinavia, Western Europe, western Russia, and eastern Asia, particularly cities in China and Korea.

Can hantavirus be transmitted from one person to another (in other words, is hantavirus contagious)?

Evidence shows that humans likely don’t transmit hantavirus to other humans. It only passes from rodents to humans. To date, the CDC states that within the U.S. there haven’t been any cases of of hantavirus reported that have been acquired from contact with another person who was infected. In hospitals where nurses and doctors work with patients who are infected with hantavirus, there have been no reports of the workers developing the illness or symptoms themselves.

There are some rodent-transmitted diseases that can affect humans indirectly, which spread from things like ticks, mites or fleas that are carrying the virus. But evidence shows this doesn’t seem to be the case with hantavirus. It’s also possible that an infected rat carrying the virus might bite other animals like cats, dogs, pigs, cattle, and deer. But no cases in humans associated with contact with other animals have yet to be reported.

Conventional Treatments for Hantavirus

Unfortunately, there is no treatment available at this time to help someone overcome hantavirus infection. One of the reasons scientists haven’t been able to develop a vaccine or treatment for hantavirus is because each time the virus is transferred from its original host to another host, it adapts to its new environment. It mutates and changes form as it makes its way into the host’s RNA.

If a patient is suspected to be infected with hantavirus, then they should be treated right away, ideally in an intensive care unit at a hospital. Depending on how severe the patient’s symptoms become, they will typically be treated in one or more of the following ways: (8)

– Intubated and given oxygen therapy to help them deal with respiratory symptoms and try to prevent complications from occurring.
– Management of fluid and electrolyte levels (sodium, potassium, chloride) to prevent dehydration or edema.
– Correction of oxygen and blood pressure levels.
– Use of intravenous ribavirin, an antiviral drug that may help lower the risk of HFRS complications. Ribavirin is used to help treat many types of viruses, including hepatitis C and others. However it isn’t always effective, causes a number of side effects, and is not well-tolerated by people with a number of existing health problems, including: allergies, autoimmune hepatitis, impaired liver function, kidney disease, sickle cell anemia, or thalassemia major.

3 Hantavirus Prevention Tips

1. Minimize Contact with Rodents & Their Droppings

There are certain steps you can take to eliminate (or at least greatly minimize) contact with rodents and their droppings, especially in places where you spend a lot of time, like your home or workplace. You might not think that you’re coming into close contact with rodents or their droppings very often. But research shows that many people who have acquired hantavirus didn’t suspect they were at risk or exposed to rodents very often before coming ill. Preventing rodent infestation is most important if you live in a high-risk area inhabited by the carrier rodents.

Experts recommend taking some of the following precautions around your home and in other places where you spend time:

– Seal up any holes or gaps in walls or your garage. This way rodents and other insects cannot make their way into your home. Small mice can squeeze through a hole in your home or garage that’s only about the size of a nickel. And rats can squeeze through a hole the size of a half dollar!
– Some places where you might find small gaps or holes inside/around your home include: under or behind kitchen cabinets, refrigerators, pipes, washing machines, hot water heaters and stoves; around a furnaces or fireplaces; around doors, floor vents and dryer vents; inside attics, basements or crawl spaces; and near laundry rooms.
– It’s also a good idea to place rodent traps in and around your home to decrease the risk for infestation. Some find that traps work best when you place a small amount of peanut butter on the bait pan of the trap. Then position the trap next to the wall so it forms a “T” shape. Another option that can help is getting a pet cat, which tends to scare away rodents from entering your home.

2. Keep Your Home & Yard Clean to Prevent Attracting Rodents

– Don’t leave food, garbage or scraps around your home, which attract rodents and other animals.
– If you’re spending time outside, such as when camping or grilling in your backyard, always clean up any waste and food.
– If you do suspect that rodents are making their way into your home, or infesting your yard, then take steps to get rid of them as quickly as possible. Speak with an exterminator who can help you trap rodents in and around the home before the problem gets worse.

3. Strengthen & Support Your Immune System

Having a strong immune system might not fully protect you from acquiring hantavirus. And there are no supplements, herbs or drugs that will be able to fully treat you if you already have a hantavirus infection. But increasing your immunity should help you recover quicker and lower the odds that you’ll develop any serious complications. Here are some ways you can increase protection against hantavirus symptoms or help to manage them if you’re already feeling ill from the virus:

Anti-viral herbs that support the immune system include wormwood, black walnut, oregano essential oil/capsules, garlic, bentonite clay, activated charcoal, and grapefruit seed extracts. How do anti-viral herbs work? They have a number of mechanisms and protective effects. These include: treating infections (typically while causing no or few side effects, unlike antibiotics); boosting the immune system by helping the body to attack viral pathogens; helping the body to combat pathogens that mutate over time; and offering cardiovascular, digestive and anti-inflammatory support during periods of illness.
– If you’re dealing with symptoms of a fever, such as nausea or vomiting, try eating bland foods, drinking ginger tea and eating foods that have a high water content to help prevent dehydration. Drinking enough water is also important if you’re experiencing diarrhea and vomiting due to a fever. Foods with a high water content include all sorts of fruits and veggies, especially leafy greens, melon, tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, berries, apples, etc. Foods to replace electrolytes also include bananas, avocado, greens and other non-starchy veggies. This should not replace visiting your doctor or getting professional help for restoring electrolyte levels if needed; rather, think of it as another layer of defense.
– If you’re feeling fatigued or weak, get extra sleep to support the body during recovery. Plus hold off on any strenuous exercise until you feel much better.
– Certain supplements might also help you to feel better, including: omega-3 fatty acids to reduce inflammation; B vitamins to help prevent fatigue; magnesium to help you sleep and lower muscle aches; and adaptogen herbs like medicinal mushrooms to help you overcome the illness.

Precautions If You Think You’ve Been Infected

Experts warn anyone who has been around rodents and experiences signs or symptoms of hantavirus including fever, deep muscle aches, and severe shortness of breath to get help right away by visiting an emergency room or doctor. When hantavirus infection is suspected, the patient should tell their doctor/health care provider that they been exposed to rodents. This way the doctor can test for rodent-carried disease and provide the right treatment.

Final Thoughts on Hantavirus

– Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family. They are viruses that passfrom rodents living around the world to humans via droppings, urine and bites.
– Prevention of rodent infestation is very important. The single greatest risk factor for acquiring rodent-transmitted viruses, including hantavirus, is having rodents and their droppings in and around your home.
– There is no cure or standard treatment for hantavirus symptoms, which can include fever and sometimes severe respiratory problems. But ways to help include securing your home; boosting your immune system with herbs and supplements; and treating symptoms like dehydration, trouble breathing, aches and low blood pressure.