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The New Zoo(Notic) Review: DENGUE/DHF UPDATE 2020 (16)

Brazil (Paraiba). 13 Apr 2011. The director of epidemiological
surveillance of the Joao Pessoa municipality indicated in a new
bulletin that there is an increase in the number of dengue cases.

Joao Pessoa has a total of 893 reported dengue cases, which
represents an increase of 249 cases in 15 days. Confirmed cases of
classical dengue fever from (type 1 [virus]) increased from 126 to 199
in the past 2 weeks. There is an alert situation in the capital with a
current incidence of 113 cases per 100 000 population; this is not
characterized as an epidemic.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Paraiba state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state). 14 Apr 2011. Almost 20 per cent of
Rio de Janeiro state is having a dengue epidemic. According to the
statement issued yesterday [13 Apr 2011] by the state Secretariat of
Health, residents in 17 municipalities run the risk of being hit by
the disease. There are 3 more cities [at risk] than last week, when 14
faced this situation. The bulletin also stated that since January
[2011], 35 dengue deaths were confirmed, most in the capital, with 11
deaths. The Rio [de Janeiro] municipality is not under an epidemic,
but the situation is complicated. According to the bulletin, of the 45
489 [dengue] cases reported in 2011 [in the state], 48 per cent are
concentrated in the capital.
in Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Rio de Janeiro state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Ceara). 16 Apr 2011. In all of Ceara, the number of
confirmed dengue cases has reached 11 807. There are more than 1000
cases confirmed in this past week. One case was confirmed as dengue
[virus] type 4. In 2010, there were 13 196 dengue cases in the state.
The number of dengue deaths increases each week in Ceara. This past
week, 3 deaths were confirmed, and now there are 25 deaths due to the
disease with 38 still under investigation.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Ceara state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Alagoas). 13 Apr 2011. In the last 3 months [January
through March 2011], Alagoas registered 6240 fewer dengue cases than
in the same period last year [2010], representing a decrease of 70 per
cent. During the same period of 2010, 9672 [dengue] cases were
registered, whereas between 1 Jan – 2 Apr [2011], there were 3432
cases. in
Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Alagoas state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Sao Paulo state). 12 Apr 2011. The Sao Paulo state
Secretariat of Health confirmed 10 cases of dengue [virus] type 4
[infections] in the state as of this Monday [11 Apr 2011]. According
to this agency, the cases are concentrated in the Sao Jose do Rio
Preto region (438 km [272 mi] from Sao Paulo city).

in Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Sao Paulo state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo state). 13 Apr 2011. Ribeirao
Preto confirmed an additional 853 dengue cases this past week. The
city now has 8256 confirmed cases of the disease, according to the
bulletin issued by the Secretariat of Health this Wednesday (13 [Apr
2011]). The city is undergoing a [dengue] epidemic. Despite these
large numbers, there has been a decline in relation to last year
[2010], when almost 14 000 cases were registered up to the last week
of March 2010. In all of 2010, the city had 30 000 cases with 9
deaths. This year [2011], the city has one confirmed [dengue] death,
in January 2011. Another 2 [deaths] are under investigation.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Campinas, Sao Paulo state). 13 Apr 2011. In just 15 days,
the number of confirmed dengue cases climbed 17 per cent, going from
480 people with the disease to 562. According to data from the
[health] office, 4 people had complications from the disease, and
another 3 presented with DHF symptoms. No deaths have been registered.

in Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Campinas, Sao Paulo state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Sorocaba, Sao Paulo state). 11 Apr 2011. As of the end of
this weekend, the number of confirmed dengue cases in Sorocaba totaled
609, according to a bulletin issued by the municipal Secretariat of
Health. Of this total, 583 are patients who contracted the disease in
the city, and 26 were imported [from elsewhere].

in Portuguese, trans. Mod TY.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Sorocaba, Sao Paulo state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Brazil (Parana). 10 Apr 2011. The number of confirmed dengue cases
in health area 10 have reached 393, but according to information from
this agency, the total could exceed 400, once laboratory results for
181 [more cases] become available.
Portuguese, trans. Mod.TY.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Brazil showing the
location of Parana state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Paraguay (Health Regions IX and XII). 17 Apr 2011. According to
Health Region XII, 24 dengue cases have been confirmed. The region was
considered practically free of the disease up until the present.
Health Region IX yesterday [16 Apr 2011] registered 250 positive
dengue cases, with another 150 with samples awaiting [test results].

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Paraguay can be accessed
at . – Mod TY]

– Paraguay (national). 16 Apr 2011. The minister of public health and
social welfare, Esperanza Martinez, admitted that this is the worst
dengue epidemic in the history of this South American country. From
January 2011 to the present, 26 792 people with febrile syndromes have
been registered, and the reported incidence rate has increased to 157
cases per 100 000 population. Ivan Allende, director of health
surveillance, stated to reporters that there are 62 deaths associated
with the disease, of which 30 were confirmed, 13 were discarded, and
another 19 continue under investigation. Allende stated that the
greatest outbreaks were in Asuncion and its metropolitan area, and the
serious situation will continue for another 2 or 3 weeks more.

in Spanish, trans. Mod.TY.

– Argentina (Chaco). 16 Apr 2011. The minister of health, Francisco
Baquero, indicated that to date Chaco registered 5 confirmed cases and
7 probable cases of dengue fever, and there are another 5 under study.
The patients with confirmed diagnoses were released [from health care]
and are in perfect condition. There is concern in Choco because of the
serious epidemics in the neighboring countries of Paraguay, Brazil and
Bolivia. in
Spanish, trans. Mod.TY.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Argentina showing the
location of Chaco province can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Saudi Arabia (Jeddah). 16 Apr 2011. There have been 26 suspected
cases of dengue fever since the floods, 6 of which were confirmed,
Sami Badawood, director of health affairs in Jeddah, said in a phone

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Saudi Arabia showing the
location of Jeddah can be accessed at . –

– Maldives. 12 Apr 2011. The Maldives is battling a growing epidemic
of dengue fever which is believed to have contributed to the deaths of
at least 5 people this year [2011]. More than 300 cases were reported
in the 1st 2 months of 2011, compared with 737 cases and 2 fatalities
reported last year [2010]. The more serious cases have
disproportionately affected children.

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of the
Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– Barbados. 11 Apr 2011. A recent release issued by the Ministry of
Health has revealed that over the 1st 9 weeks of this year [2011], 135
cases of dengue fever were confirmed by laboratory testing, and one
death was recorded. The ministry also revealed that 570 cases of
dengue fever and 4 deaths were recorded in 2010. This compares with
2008 when, during the 1st 9 weeks of the year, 2 deaths were verified,
and 212 cases were documented, following an epidemic in 2007

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map showing the location of
Barbados in the Caribbean can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

– USA (Maui, Hawaii). 13 Apr 2011. Three new cases of dengue fever
are suspected in Hana, along with a possible case in Haliimaile and an
additional 2 or 3 Upcountry, according to health officials. Maui
district health officer Dr Lorrin Pang also said at least one of 2
cases previously suspected in Keanae has been confirmed by a
laboratory in Hawaii, although he was still waiting for official
verification from a Center for Disease Control lab in Puerto Rico

[David Duffy has reminded us that Hana was the
focus of the 2001 outbreak, very wet and rural on the windward side.
Haliimaile is near the Kahului Airport in dry sugar cane country on
the leeward side.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the USA showing the
location of Maui in Hawaii state can be accessed at
. – Mod.TY]

[see also:
Dengue/DHF update 2011 (15) 20110411.1146
Dengue/DHF update 2011 (12) 20110325.0938
Dengue/DHF update 2011 (10) 20110306.0743

Dengue/DHF update 2010 (53) 20101018.3777
Dengue/DHF update 2010 (38) 20100727.2520

Dengue – USA (Hawaii) (04) 20011006.2424
Dengue – USA (Hawaii) 20010922.2296]
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All You Want To Know About Hantavirus That Killed A Man In China This Week

Bengaluru: As the world grapples with the coronavirus pandemic, a man in China died of hantavirus earlier this week.

Chinese state-run Global Times reported that a person from Yunnan Province died while on his way back to Shandong Province for work on a chartered bus Monday.

“He was tested positive for #hantavirus. Other 32 people on bus were tested,” it tweeted.

The hantaviruses are a family of viruses that spread in rodents and to humans from rodents.

Some strains of the virus cause fatal illnesses in humans, such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). It is caused by inhalation of excreta particles or aerosols from infected rats.

The family of viruses spreads only from rodents and there is no human to human transmission, except for one virus, the Andes Virus, which spreads between people.

The virus is named after the Hantan River area in South Korea, where one of the early strains of the virus was isolated in the 70s.

Also read: COVID-19 impact in India: A look at the statistics, the science and the reality

Virus structure and evolution

Hantaviruses belong to the order called Bunyavirales and have 12 families.

They were first detected in May 1993 in southwestern United States. They are about a hundredth the size of a bacteria. They are also an RNA virus just like SARS-CoV-2 (the novel coronavirus).

As virions, which are what the virus are called outside of a body or host as independent particles, it consists of RNA, a coat of protein to protect the genetic material, and a fatty outer layer that holds everything in. It is this outer layer that is dissolved by soap, leading to the rest of the virus to disintegrate.

Hantavirus virions are about 150 nanometers in diameter. They attach themselves to cell receptors and then get absorbed into the cell.

Understanding the mechanism of infection has been challenging as hantavirus doesn’t seem to cause the disease in the animals that it infects. There are theories to understand why, including a co-dependent evolutionary relationship, but none have scientific consensus yet.

But the family of viruses do infect rodents across species, and transmission from one species to another has been observed.

Hantavirus diseases

There are different kinds of illnesses caused by different hantaviruses, and they affect either the blood vessels or the lungs.

During the fatal hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the membrane of blood vessels become more permeable and there is a drop in blood pressure.

There is rapid and dramatic damage observed in kidneys during worst forms of the disease. For the other fatal disease, the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), there are muscle aches, fever, fatigue accompanied by breathing difficulties later. The most damage is observed in the lung, spleen and gall bladder.

Vaccines developed for the hantavirus have not been so far completely successful for all strains of the virus found in different geographical locations around the world.

But there are a number of vaccine candidates currently undergoing trial. So far, the best protection against contacting hantavirus is to avoid having rodents enter our homes or offices.

The virus is transmitted by rodent excreta, saliva and sometimes, infected rodent bites. Because the virus spreads when excreta or other residue it inhabits rises into the air, the necessary treatment to take is to prevent actions that cause dust to rise and wet down areas with disinfectant.

Hantavirus infections are prevalent all over the world, except for Australia from where no cases have been reported so far. South America sees the highest incidences of cases, followed by North America. In each geographical region, the disease is caused by a different strain of the virus.

Also read: Man dies of hantavirus in China – what is this virus and how it spreads

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French Finance Minister To Meet PSA, Renault Over Aid

PARIS, March 18 (Reuters) – French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire said he will meet the heads of French carmakers Renault and PSA on Wednesday to discuss how to help the sector, as production ground to a standstill in Europe due to the coronavirus.

Auto companies worldwide have been hit hard by the health crisis, first as production stalled in China, where the virus originated from, and now it spreads in Europe, where some governments are ordering unprecedented lockdowns to contain it.

Peugeot owner PSA, which also produces the Opel and Vauxhall brands, said on Monday it would close it European factories until March 27, while Renault has suspended industrial activity in France and Spain until further notice.

“Today I will talk to the heads of Renault and PSA as the car sector has come to a halt,” Le Maire told BFM Business radio.

Le Maire said that the meeting was aimed at “making sure second-rank subcontractors are treated fairly.”

Tyre maker Michelin has closed its factories in Spain, Italy and France for at least a week, and the car firms work with many smaller suppliers too.

Le Maire also evoked potentially major steps including state bailouts, saying the government had a range of tools at its disposal, including nationalisation, to insure the survival of large companies. He did not say which firms he had in mind.

“The situation is extremely clear … it is out of the question to see big French companies, industrial icons disappear,’ he said. “If to protect our national industrial heritage, we have to resort to nationalisation, we are prepared to go that far,” he added.

The coronavirus crisis has caught carmakers at a fragile time, as many were already grappling with a slump in demand in big markets like China and have invested massively in innovations like less polluting cars.

Renault, in which the French government has a 15% stake, had in February flagged an extra 2 billion euros in cost cuts over the next three years after posting its first loss in a decade.

The company had at that stage stressed that it had no issues with cash availability. Its debt rating was also downgraded to “junk” status by Moody’s.

PSA, which is in the middle of merging with Italy’s Fiat Chrysler, fared better in its recent results, with profitability reaching a record high in 2019 as it focused on pricier models.

France’s automotive industry federation on Tuesday said it has asked the government for a much broader support package than measures already announced to counter the effects of the coronavirus outbreak on car sales.

This could include state incentives to purchase electric cars and massive investment in recharging infrastructure, it said. (Reporting by Dominique Vidalon; Additional writing by Sarah White; Editing by John Irish and Alexander Smith)